The political thriller will be based on the Dreyfus affair of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
D reunites the team from Polanski's 2010 film The Ghost Writer, with Robert Harris writing the script and Robert Benmussa and Alain Sarde producing.
The Dreyfus affair centred around a young Jewish officer in the French army, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, who was convicted of spying for Germany in 1894.
He was sentenced to solitary confinement on the Devil's Island penal colony, where his gaoler and French counter-intelligence head Colonel Georges Picquart slowly began to suspect the condemned man's innocence.
The case famously divided public opinion in France.
"I have long wanted to make a film about the Dreyfus Affair, treating it not as a costume drama but as a spy story," said Polanski.
"In this way one can show its absolute relevance to what is happening in today's world - the age-old spectacle of the witch-hunt of a minority group, security paranoia, secret military tribunals, out-of-control intelligence agencies, governmental cover-ups and a rabid press."
Jodie Foster, John C. Reilly, Kate Winslet and Christoph Waltz starred in Polanski's most recent movie Carnage.